Cancer (Symptoms, detection, treatment and prevention)


Symptoms of cancer:

  • In colon cancer, the nature of stool keeps changing with unexpected weight loss.
  • In breast cancer, there can be lump on node indicating the presence of tumor.
  • In case of wart or mole, there is frequent change in nature of tissues.
  • In case of throat cancer, there is persistent hoarseness and coughing.
  • In case of cervical cancer, there is pelvic and abdominal pain with urinary problems.

Detection or diagnosis:

  • On the basis of blood or biopsy
  • X-ray studies
  • CT-scan or MRI for internal organs, like pancreas, liver, gall bladder etc.
  • By using monoclonal antibodies (called magic bullets)
  • The cancer causing genes called oncogenes, remain suppressed which are present in the normal cells.
  • Some argue that cancer develops due to suppression of anti-oncogenes present in normal cells.
  • The cancer associated genes like genes inducing cell proliferation, genes inhibiting cell proliferation and the genes regulating programmed cell death may be altered or mutated to cause cancer.


  1. Surgery:
    • It is used to cancer localized in larynx, breast, uterus etc.
    • There is a high chance of the recurrence of malignancy due to the cells which are left out (not completely removed).
    • The lasers can also be used for killing or surgically removing the malignant tissue.
  2. Radiations:
    • The ϒ-radiations (gamma radiations) can be used to kill the cancerous cells.
    • The disadvantage of this technique is that some of the neighboring non-cancerous cells can also be damaged.
  3. Chemotherapy:
    • Chemicals can be used to treat the cancer if the metastasis (spread via blood) has already set in.
    • The chemicals can either mimic the chemicals which prevent DNA replication, or they can prevent translation of the proteins.
    • As the cell division is stopped, the growth of secondary tumor doesn’t occur.
    • The cell division and proliferation of normal cell can be affected by chemotherapy with some other side effects like nausea, hair fall etc.
  4. Grafting or transplantation:
    • In case of myeloma (the cancer of bone marrow), the marrow can be transplanted from a donor to the cancer patient.
  5. Use of monoclonal antibodies can be very effective in certain types of cancer treated by immunotherapy.

Prevention of cancer:

  1. Vitamin supplements:
    • Vitamin A prevents carcinoma
    • Vitamin E (an anti-oxidant) is anti-cancerous
    • Vitamin C and Vitamin B17 are also anti-cancerous
  2. Roughage:
    • Fiber-rich food stimulates peristalsis and prevents gut cancer (particularly of the colon).
  3. Low calorie diet:
    • Reduction in calorie intake prevents the occurrence of cancer.

Cancer (Symptoms, detection, treatment and prevention)